Bibliographical References for
Duke's Handbook of
Medicinal Plants of Latin America

In some of our work we quote from Duke's authoritative reference on medicinal plants of Latin America.
The information below lists, alphabetically, the coded 3-digit bibliographical references that Duke annotates in much of his work. For brevity's sake, we include only those that are referenced on our site.

Code Reference
60P Desmarchelier, C.; Wittig Schaus, F. (2000). Sesenta Plantas Medicinales de la Amazonia Peruana: Ecologia,k Etnomedicina y Bioactividad ("Sixty Medicinal Plants from the Peruvian Amazon: Ecology, Ethnomedicine and Bioactivity"). Lima. 270 pp.
ADP Dhiman, A.K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants. Daya Publishing House, Delhi. 598p.
AHL Liogier, A.H. (1974). Diccionario Botanico de Nombres Vulgares de la Espanola. Impresora UNPHU, Santo Domingo, RD. 813 pp.
APA Peirce, A. (1999). The AphA Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. Stonesong Press Book, William Morrow & Co., Inc., New York. 728 pp.
AUS Austin D.F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 909 pp.
BEJ Bejar E., Bussmann R., Roa C., Sharon D. (2001). Herbs of Southern Ecuador Latino Herbal Press, Spring Valley, CA. 350 pp.
CTD Castner, J.L., Timme, S.L., and Duke, J.A., 1998. A Field Guide to Medicinal and Useful Plants of the Upper Amazon, Feline Press, Gainesville, FL. 160 pp.
DAD Duke and duCellier (1993). Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 536 pp.
DAV Duke, J.A. and Vasquez Martinez, R. 1994. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 215 pp. Partially online at
DAW Duke, J.A.; Wain, K. 1991. Medicinal Plants of the World. USDA Computer listing of folk medicines of the world, now slightly updated and online at USDA (
DEP Watt, G. (1889-1892: reprint 1972). Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. 6 vols., Nav Bharat Offset Process, Delhi, India.
DLZ De Lucca, D.M. and Zalles, A.J. 1992. Flor Medicinal Bolivia -- Diccionario Enciclopedia. Los Amigos del Libro, La Paz. 498 pp.
EB Economic Botany
EGG Egg, A.B., 1999, Diccionario Enciclopédico de Plantas Útiles de Perú. Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos Bartolomé de Las Casas, Cuzco, 550 pp.
FNF Father's Nature Farmacy (online databases)
GMJ Grenand, P.; Moretti, C.; Jacquemin, H.(1987). Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. L'orstrom, Paris. 569 pp.
HH2 Hansel, R.; Keller, K.; Rimpler, H.; Schneider, G. (1992, 1993, 1994: 3 volumes). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D, E-O, P-Z). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (1209, 970, and 1197 pp. respectively).
HH3 Blaschek, W.; Hansel, R.; Keller, K.; Reichling, J.; Rimpler, H.; Schneider, G. (Eds.: 1998). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), and Band 3 (L-Z). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.(909 and 858 pp. respectively)
HHB List, P.H. and Hohammer, L. 1969-1979. Hagers Handbach der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
HOE Duke, J.A. 1983. Handbook of Energy Species. USDA documents, online at Purdue University.
IED Duke, J.A. 1986. Isthmian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 205 pp. Partially online at
IHB Burkill, I.H. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Art Printing Works, Kuala Lumpur. 2 vols.
JAD James A. Duke, personal communication
JFM Morton, F.J. Major Medicinal Plants. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL (1977); and Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL (1981)
JLH Hartwell, Jonathan L. (1982). Plants Used Against Cancer. A Survey. Quarterman Publications, Inc., Lawrence, MA. 710 pp. (Reprinted from eleven different issues of Lloydia 1967-1971). Also see our article on Jonathan Hartwell's work.
KAB Kirtikar, K.R.; Basu, B.D.; (Reprint 1975; 1st Edition, 1918; 2nd Ed. 1935 or 1938). Indian Medicinal Plants. 4 volumes text; 4 volumes illustrations. M/S Periodical Experts. New Delhi.
KAP Kapoor, L.D.(1990). Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 416 pp.
KEB Bone, K. (1996). Clinical Applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs -- Monographs for the Western Herbal Practitioner. Phytotherapy Press, Warwick, Australia. 152 pp.
LYM Buhner, S.H. (2005). Healing Lyme - Natural Healing and Prevention of Lyme Borreliosis and Its Coinfections. Raven Press, New York. 272 pp.
MAD Madaus, G. Lehrbuch der biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol. 1-3 Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, reprint of 1938 Madaus. 2862 pp + 144 pp. index. (1976)
MBC Martinez, A.J.V.; Bernal, M.H.Y.; Caceres, A.(Eds.) 2000. Fundamentos de Agrotecnologia de Cultivo de Plantas Medicinales Iberoamericanas. CYTED. Santafe de Bogota, DC, Colombia. 524 pp.
MCK McKenna, D.J., Jones, K., and Hughs, K., with Humphrey, S. (2002). Botanical Medicines, The Desk Reference for Major Herbal Supplements. 2nd ed. The Haworth Herbal Press, Binghamtom, NY. 1138 pp.
MD2 Lacaze, D. and Alexiades, M. 1995. Salud Para Todos -- Plantas Medicinales y Salud Indigene en la Cuenca del Rio Madre de Dios Peru - un Manual Practico. Federacion Nativa del Rio Madre de Dios y Afluentes. Madre de Dios, Peru. 287 pp.
MPB Gupta, M.P. (Ed.) 1995. 270 Plantas Medicinales Iberoamericanas. Talleres de Editorial Presencia Ltda., Bogota, 617 pp.
MPG Mors, W.B., Rizzini, C.T., and Pereira, N.A. Medicinal Plants of Brazil. Reference Publications. Algonac, MI. 501 pp. (2000)
MPI ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (1976, 1987). Medicinal Plants of India. Volumes 1 and 2. Indian Council of Medicinal Research. Cambridge Printing Works. New Delhi. (487 and 600 pp. respectively).
NAD Nadkarni, A.K., 1976. (Revised & Enlarged). Dr. K.M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica. Vol. One. 1319 pp. Volume Two. (Originally edited by Dr. K.M. Nadkarni, 1908.) Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., Bombay. 968 pp.
NIG Nigg, H.N.; Seigler, D.S. (Eds.: 1992). Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
NPM Manandhar, N.P. (2002). Plants and People of Natal. Timber Press. Portland, OR. 599 pp.
PC Professional journal: "Phytochemistry"
PH2 Gruenwald, J. et al. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Ed. 2. Medical Economics Company, Inc., Montvale, NJ. 858 pp. (2000)
PHM Phytomedicine
PR Phytotherapy Research
RA2 Taylor, Leslie, Raintree Nutrition Database
-- (2006)
RAI Taylor, Leslie 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp. . . . and/or
RAR Rutter, R.A., 1990. Catalogo de Plantas Utiles de la Amazonia Peruana. Instituto Linguistico de Verano, Yarinacocha, Peru. 349 pp.
RDF Revista de Fitoterapia -- (summaries cover the years of publication, 2000-present).
ROE Roersch, C., 1994. Plantas Medicinales de al Sur Andino del Peru. 2 vols. Koeltz Scientific Books. Koenigstein.
SAR Schultes, R.E.; Raffauf, R.F. (1990). The Healing Forest. Dioscorides Press. Portland, OR. 484 pp.
SKJ Jain, S.K.; deFillips, R. (1991). Medicinal Plants of India. 2 vols. Reference Publications, Algonac, MI. 849 pp.
SKY Lininger, S. (Ed.); Wright J.; Austin S.; Brown D.; Gaby A. (1998). The Natural Pharmacy. Prima Publications, Rocklin, CA. 450 pp.
SOU Soukup, J (1970). Vocabulary of the Common Names of the Peruvian Flora and Catalog of the Genera. Editorial Salesiano, Lima. 436 pp.
TRA Germosén-Robineau, L. (Eds: 1997). Farmacopea Vegetal Caribeña. Enda-caribe. Tramil. Ediciones Emile Desormeaux, Martinique, F.W.I. 360 pp.
VAD Vadmecum Garcia, A.A. et al. (1998). Fitoterapia Vademecum de Prescripción Masson, S.A. Barcelona, España. 1148 pp.
WO2 CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 1985. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. First Revised Edition. Vol. 1: A CSIR Hillside Road, New Delhi. 513 pp. + 54 pp. index.
WO3 CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 2000. The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. First Supplement Series (raw materials). Vol. 1 : A-Ci. CSIR Hillside Road, New Delhi. 283 pp. + 24 pp. index.
WOI CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). (1948-1976). The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. 11 vols. CSIR Hillside Road, New Delhi.
X This prefix is always followed by a number: PubMed reference citation (e.g., X123456) searchable at
ZUL Hutchings, A.; Scott, A.H.; Lewis, G.; Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An Inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.

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